This monograph provides the technical basis to inform and guide the development of national implementation strategies for joint TB and HIV program activities in delivering the available interventions. The monograph describes the background to the global problem of HIV-related TB, and includes a brief review of global HIV epidemiology, the causes of the main burden of HIV-related disease, the epidemiology of HIV-related TB, and the place of TB in the course of progression of HIV infection. It includes a description of the evolving international response to TB/HIV and the main interventions available. It also proposes a framework for a coherent health service response, indicating the interventions applicable at different levels of the health care system according to available resources, and the criteria for determining priorities. The monograph suggests ways forward for collaboration between HIV/AIDS and TB programs in supporting general health service providers and concludes with a summary of priority research needs in developing new and improved interventions, monitoring their impact, and implementing national strategies to decrease the burden of TB/HIV.