This monograph describes the major characteristics of the private health sector role in TB care and presents efforts to address the issue. The monograph reports the result of a global situation assessment initiated by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1999 to investigate the extent and nature of private involvement in TB care. Twenty-three countries in the six WHO regions were visited as part of the assessment. The assessment confirmed a substantial TB caseload and unsatisfactory management practices among private practitioners. The report argues that private sector involvement in TB care should be addressed and provides a framework for that purpose. The options available to the National Tuberculosis Programmes (NTBs) include provision of TB care exclusively through the public sector and active inclusion of the private health sector. The report argues that inclusion of the private health sector in the delivery of TB care is one of the most promising options for NTBs in high-burden TB countries.