This monograph seeks to build practical skills for nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), community-based organizations (CBOs), and groups of people living with HIV that are responding to HIV/AIDS in developing countries. It is designed to help NGOs, CBOs, and PLWHA groups improve the quality of their work on HIV/AIDS-related treatment. Chapter one helps groups understand key terms, links between HIV/AIDS-related treatment and HIV prevention, factors affecting access to HIV/AIDS-related treatment, and barriers to treatment access. Chapter two focuses on the foundations of treatment. Topics include the basics of effective treatment, an ethnical approach to treatment, and partnerships and advocacy. Chapter three explains how to put treatment concepts into practice. Chapter four deals with assessing needs and resources and making decisions about what to do. The final chapter focuses on learning from and improving HIV/AIDS-related treatment work.