This report discusses the risk of HIV/AIDS for lesbians and women who have sex with women (WSW). It reviews research on the risks of contracting HIV faced by lesbians and WSW and the context of HIV among women. The report considers how lesbians contract HIV or AIDS, the belief that WSW are part of a low-risk population, and the activities that increase risk, such as injection drug use, sex with men, barriers to health access, gender bias and discrimination and their effect on WSW’s self esteem, and violence. It is concluded that the risk of contracting HIV for lesbians and WSW is directly related to a woman’s experiences and behavior, and that there is significant risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections and other health disparities for WSW. Further study is required, and education and outreach need to be tailored to this specific community.