This monograph delineates the determinants of exposure, infection, disease, and death from TB using descriptive and etiologic epidemiological data. The monograph reviews statistics regarding exposure to TB including the number of incident cases, the duration of infection in these cases, and the number of case contact interactions per unit of time. Etiologic and descriptive epidemiology are used to asses the risk factors for infection once an exposure has occurred, the incidence and prevalence of infection, and the formation of a paradigm of the risk of infection. Risk factors for the formation of active TB once an infection has occurred, the morbidity of active TB, and the prospects for the course of the epidemic are discussed in terms of descriptive and etiologic epidemiology. These two types of epidemiology also are used to analyze the mortality of TB, the risk factors for death resulting from TB, and the expected death toll of TB in the future. Based on these findings, the monograph draws conclusions and makes recommendations for the prevention and surveillance of TB worldwide.