This report provides a global update on the progress in scaling up priority health sector interventions for HIV prevention, treatment, and care in 2008 toward a goal of universal access. Of 192 United Nations member states, 158 reported data to WHO, UNICEF, and UNAIDS, including 139 low-and middle-income and 19 high-income countries, with higher reporting rates for many indicators, compared with 2007. This allowed for more comprehensive global analysis of the health sector’s achievements toward universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, and care. The report documents expansion of priority health sector interventions for HIV prevention, treatment, and care worldwide, building on previous reports on the scaling up of antiretroviral therapy. It assesses current achievements and ongoing challenges in moving toward the goal of universal access and discusses priority actions for the future.