This report contains recommendations by the Committee on the Prevention and Control of Viral Hepatitis Infections of the National Academies of the Institute of Medicine, on prevention and control of hepatitis B and hepatitis C in the United States. The committee identified the underlying factors that impede current efforts to prevent and control these diseases. Three major factors were found: (1) a lack of knowledge and awareness about chronic viral hepatitis on the part of health care and social service providers; (2) a lack of knowledge and awareness about chronic viral hepatitis among at-risk populations, members of the public, and policymakers; and (3) insufficient understanding about the extent and seriousness of the public health problem, resulting in inadequate public resources being allocated to prevention, control, and surveillance programs. The committee listed several consequences of the three factors. To address those consequences, the committee offers recommendations in four categories: surveillance, knowledge and awareness, immunization, and services for viral hepatitis.