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HIV/AIDS Prevention

MMWR: Updated U.S. Public Health Service Guidelines for the Management of Occupational Exposures to HBV, HCV, and HIV and Recommendations for Postexposure Prophylaxis

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This report updates previous US Public Health Service recommendations for the management of health-care personnel (HCP) who have occupational exposure to blood and other body fluids that may contain Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, or HIV/AIDS. It contains recommendations for Hepatitis B Virus postexposure management including initiation of hepatitis B vaccine series to any susceptible, unvaccinated person who sustains blood or body fluid exposure. Guidance is provided to clinicians and exposed HCP for selecting the appropriate HBV postexposure prophylaxis (PEP).

Revised Guidelines for HIV Counseling, Testing, and Referral and Revised Recommendations for HIV Screening of Pregnant Women

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This MMWR provides revised guidelines for HIV counseling, testing, and referral (CTR) and revised recommendations for HIV screening of pregnant women. It encourages the availability of anonymous and confidential HIV testing and informed, voluntary, and consented HIV testing; access to testing and effective provision of test results; and using a prevention counseling approach aimed at personal risk reduction for HIV-infected persons and persons at increased risk for HIV infection.

Young People and HIV/AIDS: Opportunity in Crisis

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This report discusses the epidemiology of HIV among adolescents, factors that place them at risk for HIV transmission, why young people are key to defeating the global HIV/AIDS epidemic, and intervention strategies for promoting HIV prevention among individuals of this age group.

New Attitudes & Strategies: A Comprehensive Approach to Preventing Blood-Borne Infections Among IDUs

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This brochure discusses a comprehensive approach to preventing blood-borne infections among injection drug users (IDUs). It provides statistics on HIV/AIDS and hepatitis and briefly discusses the role of IDUs in the transmission of these blood-borne diseases. CDC is advocating a comprehensive approach to working with IDUs, which incorporates strategies that take into account the differing sociocultural characteristics of IDUs and incorporates several basic principles that serve as a framework for action.

Physician Prescription of Sterile Syringes to Injection Drug Users

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This information sheet discusses physician prescription of sterile syringes to injection drug users (IDUs) who continue to inject, in order to prevent the acquisition and transmission of HIV and other blood-borne diseases. Physician prescription of sterile syringes will not only help IDUs receive sterile syringes legally, but also can create links to other health care and social services that IDUs would not normally seek out. The example is given of a progam in Rhode Island that is examining the feasiblity of physician prescription in a community setting.

Women and HIV/AIDS

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This information sheet discusses the prevalence of HIV/AIDS among women. The sheet presents statistics on the number of women living with HIV/AIDS and notes that the majority of new AIDS cases are African American women and Latinas. Reasons for the higher proportion of women contracting HIV are discussed including the lack of an effective female-controlled method of HIV prevention, women are at-risk because they may not be aware of the high-risk behavior of their partners, and HIV is transmitted eight times more efficiently from men to women.

Communities of Color and HIV/AIDS

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This information sheet discusses the impact of HIV/AIDS on communities of color. It reports that people of color have been disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS and represent the highest number of new AIDS cases and the largest number of people living with AIDS in the US. The information sheet discusses the reasons behind these statistics and some of the programs that have been developed in response.

Antiretroviral Drugs for Treating Pregnant Women and Preventing HIV Infection in Infants: Guidelines on Care, Treatment and Support for Women Living With HIV/AIDS and Their Children in Resource-Constrained Settings

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This monograph presents guidelines for the use of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) in pregnant women and for preventing perinatal transmission of HIV to their infants and summarizes programmatic considerations and scientific rationale behind the guidelines. The monograph includes recommendations for ARV treatment for pregnant women and women of childbearing age.

National Guide to Monitoring and Evaluating Programmes for the Prevention of HIV in Infants and Young Children

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This report presents guidelines for monitoring programs for the prevention of HIV/AIDS in infants and young children. It presents a list of core indicators and additonal indicators for indicating the success of these programs. Countries with prevention programs for infants and young children should have the core indicators in operation. The report gives a definition of each indicator, the rationale for its use, what it measures, measurement tools and how the indicator is measured, and its strengths and limitations.

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