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Persons with HIV/TB

A Guide to Monitoring and Evaluation for Collaborative TB/HIV Activities

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This monograph is a guide to monitoring and evaluating the collaborative TB/HIV activities. It presents a rationale for collaborative activities, an overview of monitoring indicators, methods of collecting standardized data, and help in interpreting and disseminating the data. It argues for consistency in the way collaborative activities are performed and data collected. The guide presents a core set of internationally accepted and standardized indicators for measuring and evaluating performance.

Tuberculosis and AIDS

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This report, for health professionals, government agencies, and organizations, presents information about HIV/AIDS and TB. It provides epidemiological statistics concerning the relationship between HIV/AIDS and TB, including incidence, morbidity rates, and mortality rates. It discusses TB and HIV transmission, how HIV can facilitate the development of active TB, and recommendations for the prevention of TB among HIV-positive persons.

MMWR: Updated Guidelines for the Use of Rifabutin or Rifampin for the Treatment and Prevention of Tuberculosis Among HIV-Infected Patients Taking Protease Inhibitors or Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors

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This report presents updated data pertaining to drug-drug-interactions between protease inhibitors and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) for treatment of HIV and rifamycins for the treatment of TB. The notice also presents recommendations for the use of these drugs. New data indicate that rifampin can be used for the treatment of active TB in three situations.

MMWR: Drug-Susceptible Tuberculosis Outbreak in a State Correctional Facility Housing HIV-Infected Inmates--South Carolina, 1999-2000

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This report describes an investigation of an outbreak of drug-susceptible TB in a South Carolina correctional facility housing inmates infected with HIV. The source inmate was not receiving antiretroviral treatment and two attempts to treat his latent TB infection were discontinued because of side effects. However, he was not placed in respiratory isolation. When a former dormitory inmate who had been released tested positive for pulmonary TB, a contact investigation of inmates from that dormitory was begun. Of 323 men, 31 were diagnosed with TB.

TB/HIV: Strategic Framework to Decrease the Burden of TB/HIV

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This monograph provides the technical basis to inform and guide the development of national implementation strategies for joint TB and HIV program activities in delivering the available interventions. The monograph describes the background to the global problem of HIV-related TB, and includes a brief review of global HIV epidemiology, the causes of the main burden of HIV-related disease, the epidemiology of HIV-related TB, and the place of TB in the course of progression of HIV infection.

HIV Voluntary Counselling and Testing: A Gateway to Prevention

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This monograph presents five case studies of programs in South Africa, Zambia, and Zimbabwe that used voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) to control the spread of HIV. The monograph describes how the programs used VCT to help prevent perinatal HIV transmission, TB, and HIV transmission among adolescents and general populations. It also discusses general VCT approaches and issues related to program development, administration, and evaluation.

Interim Policy on Collaborative TB/HIV Activities

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This report promotes collaboration between TB and HIV programs in providing a continuum of quality care for people coinfected with TB and HIV/AIDS. It recommends that these activities should be implemented as part of the health sector response to the intersecting TB and HIV epidemics. The report discusses the policy formulation process, the goal and objectives of collaborative TB/HIV activities, and the recommended collaborative TB/HIV activities.

Guidelines for HIV Surveillance Among Tuberculosis Patients

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This report presents guidelines to provide a framework for methods used in measuring HIV prevalence among patients with TB and to encourage HIV surveillance. The report discusses the objectives of surveillance and explains the three main methods for HIV surveillance among TB patients: the surveillance method (data from the routine testing of TB patients), periodic special surveys (usually conducted among pregnant women), and the sentinel method (TB patients are routinely tested at selected sentinel sites).

Updated Guidelines for the Use of Rifamycins for the Treatment of Tuberculosis Among HIV-Infected Patients Taking Protease Inhibitors or Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors

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This report presents updated data pertaining to drug-drug interactions between protease inhibitors and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) for treatment of HIV and rifamycins for the treatment of TB. The report also presents recommendations for the use of these drugs: including initial recommendations for the protease inhibitors lopinavir/ritonavir, atazanavir, and fos-amprenavir (a phosphate ester prodrug of amprenavir).

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