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Correctional Facilities/Correctional Agencies

Guide for HIV/AIDS Clinical Care

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This manual for clinicians provides guidelines for clinical care of persons with HIV/AIDS. This updated version incorporates many new insights, but the time-tested format has been retained – easy access to crucial facts for a busy clinician. The guide touches on every topic facing people with HIV and their caregivers.

HIV Among Incarcerated Populations

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This information sheet discusses the epidemiology of HIV among incarcerated populations. It provides surveillance data on HIV/AIDS diagnoses and AIDS-related deaths, and prevention challenges. The information sheet also describes CDC-funded HIV prevention projects that work in correctional facilities.

Fenced In: HIV/AIDS in the US Criminal Justice System

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This report discusses the structural barriers in correctional facilities when dealing with HIV and inmates. It states that four times as many people in prison have HIV than in the general population, which is a concern for everyone, not just those in prison.

Prisons and AIDS: UNAIDS Point of View

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This technical update reviews the incidence and prevalence of HIV in correctional facilities around the world and explains how this morbidity rate impacts the general public. The risk factors for HIV transmission in correctional facilities are reviewed and include drug injection, unprotected sexual relations, tattooing, skin piercing, blood brotherhood rites, lack of education, TB, and overcrowding. Suggestions for preventing the transmission of HIV in correctional settings are presented.

MMWR: Tuberculosis Outbreaks in Prison Housing Units for HIV-Infected Inmates - California, 1995-1996

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This report describes the investigations of two TB outbreaks that occurred in two state correctional institutions with dedicated HIV housing units. In each outbreak, IS6110-based DNA fingerprinting of Mycobacterium (MTB) isolates linked all cases. During the 4-month intervals between identification of the two male index case-patients, one of whom later died of miliary TB, and chest radiograph screening of all the contacts remaining in the housing unit, 190 inmates had been released.

MMWR: Drug-Susceptible Tuberculosis Outbreak in a State Correctional Facility Housing HIV-Infected Inmates--South Carolina, 1999-2000

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This report describes an investigation of an outbreak of drug-susceptible TB in a South Carolina correctional facility housing inmates infected with HIV. The source inmate was not receiving antiretroviral treatment and two attempts to treat his latent TB infection were discontinued because of side effects. However, he was not placed in respiratory isolation. When a former dormitory inmate who had been released tested positive for pulmonary TB, a contact investigation of inmates from that dormitory was begun. Of 323 men, 31 were diagnosed with TB.

MMWR: Prevention and Control of Infections With Hepatitis Viruses in Correctional Settings

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This report consolidates previous recommendations and adds new ones for preventing and controlling infections with hepatitis viruses among inmates and workers in correctional facilities. The recommendations provide guidelines for juvenile and adult correctional systems regarding (1) identification and investigation of acute viral hepatitis, (2) pre-exposure and postexposure immunization for hepatitis A and B, (3) prevention of hepatitis C virus infection and its consequences, (4) health education, and (5) release planning.

What is the Role of Prisons and Jails in HIV Prevention?

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This fact sheet discusses the role of prisons in the prevention of HIV/AIDS. Rates of these diseases are higher for the incarcerated than for the total United States population. Although most inmates with infectious diseases come to jail or prison already infected, there is some evidence that infection also occurs during incarceration, especially TB and the hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Inmates are at risk due to injection drug use, other illicit drug use, unprotected sex, tattooing, and close quarters.


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