This report presents results of an expert consultation to define TB/HIV research priorities and outline their research relevance, methods, and feasibility in the context of program activities and to solicit and promote the building of TB/HIV research capacity at the country level through involvement of national and international agencies. Plenary presentations highlighted major issues in implementing and evaluating joint TB/HIV activities. Also, groups discussed TB/HIV research priority areas identified at previous meetings. Summaries were presented of the latest available evidence on preventive therapy for latent TB, co-trimoxazole prophylaxis, use of antiretroviral therapy in people with TB, intensified case-finding, and smear-negative TB. A discussion was held on methods of mainstreaming research priorities within the implementation of collaborative TB/HIV activist at county level.